Growth of King Abdulaziz

King Abdulaziz was born in Riyadh city in the year 1876, his father was Imam Abdurrahman bin Faisal bin Turky bin Abdullah al Soud. He was taught by Sheikh Abdullah Al Kharji a well learned man from Riyadh City. He learned many chapters of the Holy Quraan. Later he learned the whole Quraan, Islamic Theology from another teachernamed Abdullah bin Abdullatif Al Al-Sheikh.

When he was young, King Abdulaziz was fond of horse riding, he was known to be very brave, courageous, daring and was of good manners.He accompanied his father in his journey to the Badiyah. He was greatly influenced by the nomad life he led after leaving Riyadh City. Abdulaziz was only twelve years old when he arrived in Kuwait with his father. He spent about ten years there during which period he learned the holy Quraan, learned about politics and learned about how to lead soldiers in the battle field.

The beginning of the new era:-

King Abdulaziz was in his twenties when left Kuwait leading a handful of his relatives and aids towards Riyadh, by then he was about 26 years old. TheArab peninsula was in a mess. But on the 15th of January 1902 King Abdulaziz was able to enter Riyadh City victoriously and the Arab peninsula witnessed a new era. He took over both the political and religious powers when his father, Imam Abdurrahman bin Faisal stepped down for him. This took place in the Grand Mosque after the Jumaah prayer.

Gradually, the new King started to unite Najd area beginning with southern Riyadh when he defeated his opponents in an area called Dalam near Kharj thereby taking over all towns of southern Riyadh including Kharj, Al Hareeq, al Aflaj and Wadi Al Dawasir.

King Abdulaziz then went to Al Washam area and conquered its capital city Shagra and then went on to Thadiq and the capital of Sudair Al Majmaah. This was culminated in uniting all these areas under his rule and became part of what is known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

King Abdulaziz was able to conquer Gasim area in the 1321/1324 after several minor battles but the last and decisive one was Raudat Mahannah on the 14th of April 1906.

 

Uniting the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

on the 17th of Jumadah Al Uola 1351, a Royal Decree was issued declaring all parts of the Kingdom united, under the name" Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" and his title was King of Saudi Arabia. King Abdulaziz chose Thursday the 21st of jumadah al Uola to declare that unity. Now this is the national Day of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

During his reign, two crossing swards and a datepalm between them was chosen as an emblem for the newly established Kingdom.

The flag of the kingdom was also chosen, it is a green rectangle in the center were written the words "No god except Allah and Mohammed is his messenger in white, and under it is white sword.

From the beginning, King Abdulaziz, organized his kingdom in a modern way. He delegated authority and formed a government for Hijaz area after conquering it. He then created the non-existing office of General Prosecutor and appointed his son Prince Faisal to head that office that was in the year 1926. He also assigned to Prince Faisal the Chairmanship of the Shuora Council which was a consultative council. In December 1931, another decree was issued establishing a council of deputies. King Abdulaziz, then formed several ministries to run the government. Diplomatic relations with some countries were established and ambassadors, councils, commissioners and ministers were also appointed.

King abdulaziz also supported the Palestinian issue and when the Arab League was established in Cairo in 1945 the Kingdom was among its first members. Among the first achievements of King Abdulaziz was his project to settle the Nomads. They were settled in villages and agricultural lands. An army of volunteers was formed out of these settled nomads. King Abdulaziz worked hard to improve the social and economic conditions of Saudi Arabia. He gave his instructions to establish new schools and institutes and encouraged book publishing especially Islamic books. He also expanded the Prophets mosque and supplied it with waster and medical services to serve Pilgrims.

Personality of King Abdulaziz:

King Abdulaziz was a unique leader of his time for he had a strong character that could be described by the following.

* He was a strong believer in God and he depended on him in all his deeds.

*He used to have a good experience in the religious affairs, because he learnt the Quraan by heart and also learned by heart many of the prophets sayings together with the knowledge of the Islamic exegesis and applies all this knowledge practically on the way he governed throughout his time of rule. He used to sit with the well-learned people overnight and discussed religious affairs with them

*as a sagacious leader, King Abdulaziz was very wise in approaching any problem that faced him no wonder his choice of solutions in most cases was right.

*King Abdulaziz was also known to be very courageous, he lead his soldiers very successfully in all battles he fought.

* he was also known to be a highly capable military man who drew successful plans and implemented them courageously where he was able to win battles by exploiting his enemies mistakes.

*King Abdulaziz had a good knowledge and experience of Bedouin and urban lives in the Arab penesula and he also knows well the Arab tribal lineage, he could even know the tribe of a man by the first sentence he pronounces, therefore he used to treat his people according to the society they belong to.

*King Abdulaziz was very steadfast on the religion of Islam he is never apologetic in applying Islamic rules, but in spite of that he was a very kind and sensitive person.

* He was kind to all his subjects; to him all people are the same.

His death:

King Abdulaziz died on the 2nd of Rabie Al awal 1373, corresponding to the 9th of November 1953, after a very long struggle that influenced the Islamic and Arab worlds, and after he established his Modern I Islamic kingdom which used modern day ways of live without violating Islamic rules and principles aiming only to serve Sharia and Muslims everywhere.