kingdom of Saudi arabia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry Services Visitor about KingDom History of the Kingdom History of the Kingdom Last updated: 8/5/2014 3:34 PM Page Image Page Content Al Saud Descent: Alsaud Family originates from the ancient Arab tribe of Banu hanifa, who belonged to Banu Bakr, son of Wa'il which descended from the large Rabi'ah branch of Adnanite tribes,a tribal confederation historically located in the Najd. Banu hanifa tribe's original lands were in Wadi al-irdh , which later came to bear their name (wadi-hanifa) at the dawn of Islam, though in the pre-islamic era it was known as Wadi Alyamamah. The House of Al Saud traces its origins back from ancient times in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula. It is linked with a deep history and noble descent. The First Saudi State [1157 – 1233 AH / 1744 – 1818 AD] In the early 18th century, the Arabian Peninsula was full of chaos, political instability, and weak religious faith because of the spread of fads and myths. Historians described the political and social situation in the Arabian Peninsula in that period as disintegrated and insecured, with lots of rival scattered emirates. The first Saudi State was established in 1157 AH / 1744 AD in Al-Dir'iya, its capital, by Imam Muhammad bin Saud when he met Sheikh Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahab .Together they formed an alliance and agreed on reforming and cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions based on Quran and Sunnah of the prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), the Messenger of Allah. The imams of the first Saudi state were able to unify the Arabian Peninsula and develop a new era of stability and security by imposing Islamic Law ( Sharia ) in all aspects of life. As a result of the First Saudi State, a lot of scientists emerged. Also, knowledge ,and scientific and economic aspects prospered. A lot of institutions and administrative systems were established. The first Saudi State became a state with a great political status as a result of Islamic principles. It has extended its influence to most parts of the Arabian Peninsula . Its rulers followed a balanced policy on the basis of the victory of Islam, community service and advancement of its civilization level . This First Saudi State ended in In 1233 AH / 1818 AD , when Ottoman troops invaded the Arabian Peninsula under the command of Ibrahim, the son of Mohammed Ali Pasha, governor of Egypt. Ibrahim Pasha besieged Al-Dir'iya after many battles, he Demolished and destroyed most parts of the First Saudi State in the Arabian Peninsula. The rulers of the first Saudi state are : Imam Muhammad ibn Saud, (1157 – 1179 AH/ 1744–1765 AD) Imam Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud (1179–1218 AH/ 1765–1803 AD) Imam Saud ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud (1218–1229 AH /1803–1814 AD) Abdullah bin Saud (1229–1233 AH/ 1814–1818 AD) The Second Saudi State [1240 – 1309 AH / 1824 – 1891 AD]: Despite the devastation caused by Muhammad Ali's forces, led by Ibrahim Pasha, in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, the demolition of Diriyah ,and the destruction of many countries ,in addition to the spread of fear, Muhammad Ali's forces could not break the elements of the Saudi state. Residents in urban and rural area’s remained loyal to Al Saud family, who founded the first Saudi state. They continued their appreciation for their treatment and their wise leadership, they also went on supporting the Salafi movement. Less than two years after the end of the first Saudi state, leaders of Al Saud emerged once again to re-establish the Saudi state. The first attempt was in 1235 AH / 1820 AD when Prince Mishari bin Saud tried to re-establish the Saudi rule in Diriyah but lasted only a few months, followed by a successful attempt led by Imam Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud in 1240 AH / 1824 AD which led to the establishment of the second Saudi state and its capital Riyadh. The second Saudi state continued on the same foundations and pillars upon which the first Saudi state was based on, in terms of its reliance on Islam, and deployment of security and stability, and the application of Islamic law(Sharia). The administrative and financial systems were similar to those in the first Saudi state, and arts and sciences prospered in the Second Saudi State. The rulers of the second Saudi state: Imam Turki bin Abdullah bin mohammed bin Saud :1240 - 1249 AH / 1824 – 1834 AD. Imam Faisal bin Turki : first period: 1250 - 1254 AH / 1834 - 1838 AD. Second period: 1259 - 1282 AH / 1843 - 1865 AD. Imam Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki: First Period : 1282 - 1288 AH/ 1865 - 1871 AD Imam Saud bin Faisal bin Turki : 1288 - 1291 AH / 1871 - 1875 AD Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki : First Period : 1391 - 1393 AH/ 1875 - 1876 AD. Imam Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki: Second Period : 1293 - 1305 AH / 1876 - 1887 AD Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki : Second Period : 1307 - 1309 AH/ 1889 - 1891 AD. The Third Saudi State : The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia In the 5th of Shawwal 1319 AH / January the 15th, 1902 AD, King AbdulAziz bin AbdulRahman bin Faisal Al Saud managed to recapture Riyadh and return to it with his family. This historic event is a major turning point in the history of the region because it started a modern Saudi state that managed to unify most of the parts of the Arabian Peninsula ,in addition to the civilizational achievements in the various fields. In his era ,King abdulaziz had a lot of titles including Imam: Amir Najd and leader of its tribes 1319 H / 1902 G Sultan Najd 1339 AH / 1921 AD Sultan Najd and its regions 1340 AH / 1922 AD King of Hejaz and Sultan Najd and its regions 1345 AH / 1926 AD King of Hejaz and King of Najd and its regions 1345 AH / 1927 AD King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1351 AH / 1932 AD On the 17th of Jumada I 1351 AH / September the 19th 1932 AD, a royal decree was issued announcing the unification of the country under the name (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), starting from Thursday, the 21st of Jumada I 1351 AH / September the 23rd 1932 AD (the first day of Libra). With this announcement, King Abdulaziz launched his efforts to unify the country and establish a solid state based on the application of the provisions of Quran and the Sunnah. After that, the first of Libra, corresponding to September the 23rd, was announced to become the National Day of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom has become a great nation in its mission, achievements, and its regional and international status. During the reign of King Abdulaziz ,The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia gained a special international status. It joined many international organizations and conventions, as a result of its major location and Steadiness ,It was also one of the first countries that signed the Charter of the United Nations in 1364 AH (1945 AD). It also contributed to the establishment of many international organizations aimed at security , stability, and justice, such as the Arab League in 1364 AH (1945 AD) The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after King AbdulAziz: After the death of King AbdulAziz – may he rest in peace – in the second of Rabia AlAwal 1373 AH corresponding the 9th of November 1953 AD, his sons continued his methods in the construction journey of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in accordance to the high principles the Kingdom is based on. The Kingdom was ruled after King AbdulAziz by his sons: King Saud Bin AbdulAziz 1373 – 1384 AH ( 1953 – 1964 AD ) Saudis pledged allegiance to King Saud in 1373 AH ( 1953 AD ) after the death of his father King Abdulaziz. During King Saud’s period the Kingdom had witnessed the accomplishment of constructions and the development journey in all sectors. King Saud Bin AbdulAziz was keen on making domestic visits to all the regions in order to inspect the country, in addition to the foreign visits to enhance the cooperation with the neighboring and friendly countries. In accordance to King AbdulAziz method, King Saud Bin AbdulAziz continued to focus on Islamic and Arabic issues. King Faisal Bin AbdulAziz 1384 – 1395 AH ( 1964 – 1975 AD ) Saudis pledged allegiance to King Faisal in 1384 AH ( 1964 AD ) after his brother king Saud had resigned, and continued the construction journey that his father King AbdulAziz and his brother King saud had initiated. The Kingdom had witnessed many developments in various sectors in King Faisal’s period as The Kingdom became the chairman of international conventions and Islamic and Arabic summits due to its international status and sematic message. King Faisal Bin AbdulAziz was able to face the challenges and the misleading ideologies, and directed the Islamic and Arabic efforts guided by Saudi Arabia which became a primary base in International politics. King Khaled Bin AbdulAziz 1395 – 1402 AH ( 1975 – 1982 AD ) Saudis pledged allegiance to king Khaled Bin AbdulAziz in 1395 AH ( 1975 AD ) after the martyrdom of King Faisal, pursuing the development and construction journey of the Kingdom. During King Khaled’s years the Kingdom had accomplished major improvements in various areas of development through the use of the urban culture while maintaining the Saudi principles and the Islamic distinguished system. The Kingdom held its high position in Arabic and Islamic politics; due to Saudi Arabia firm leadership and principles, and the embracing of the Muslims beloved two Holy mosques. King Fahad Bin AbdulAziz ( The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques ) 1402 – 1426 AH ( 1982 – 2005 AD ) In 1402 AH ( 1982 AD ) The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahad Bin AbdulAziz was ascent to the throne, following his father’s method in building the country and society to reach the highest level of civilization. King Fahad’s period had witnessed great civil achievements that reflected the advanced growth of the Kingdom, and the prosperity of the Saudi life while continuing to apply the Islamic constitution, and also had an interest in the security and education fields. Moreover, The Kingdom has pursued its development in the industrial field as a result to King Fahad’s policies and attention towards the overall development and building the industrial infrastructure in the Kingdom. In King Fahad’s period the largest historic expansion of the two holy mosques took place, along with the Saudi economy and civilianization raising to the highest level. The Saudi foreign policy during King Fahad’s period was known for effectiveness and positiveness, and making the right solutions in major Islamic and Arabic matters. King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz ( The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques ) 1426 AH / 2005 AD : On Wednesday 28 of Jumada II 1426 AH (03/08/2005 AD) , Saudis pledged allegiance to King Abdullah Bin AbdulAziz as the king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz supported Islamic solidarity. He has strengthened brotherly ties between Arab countries, and has had an active role in peacemaking efforts between Arabs. In addition, he has had an active role in global economy , United Nations, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Non-Aligned Movement. He is known for his generosity in humanitarian and local charitable deeds. He provided a great support to science and scientists, the development of education, and the establishment of financial, scientific and technical institutions. He also has visited many Arab ,Islamic, and friendly countries in Asia , Europe , the United States and Africa. He attended many Arab and Islamic summits ,and was keen to achieve peace in the Arab region. His era witnessed many great accomplishments in the field of higher education , public education, justice and health. Not to mention the expansion of the Prophet's Mosque and the expansion of the Grand Mosque and Al-Mataf. Prince Salman Bin Abdulaziz ( Crown Prince) The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz had chosen Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz as the crown prince in 1433 AH, in addition to his responsibilities as a defense minister and deputy prime minister. His Royal Highness Prince Salman was known for his passion for extensive reading in history and culture, and for heritage and his country's history. Along with his outstanding role in development in the Riyadh region, which witnessed a quantum leap during his emirate. He also supported the humanitarian activities whether inside or outside the Kingdom, especially with regard to the areas of relief and assistance.